- Chairman of the Democratic National Committee
- Chairman of the Republican National Committee
- Steve Hodder — Dean Norris
- Reverend Don Butler (R-Virginia) — Don S. Davis (Season 6): Candidate for Republican nomination for President and leader of the American Christian Assembly
- Reverend Al Caldwell — F. William Parker: Prominent religious leader who, unlike his associates (like Mary Marsh and John Van Dyke), is respectful of and respected by members of the Bartlet administration (Eps. 1.1, 2.8)
- Mary Marsh — Annie Corley: Associate of Rev. Al Caldwell who has a mutually shared antagonism with members of the Bartlet administration, especially Josh Lyman
- Reverend Algiss Schuyler — Ellis E. Williams
- John Van Dyke — David Sage: Associate of Rev. Al Caldwell. (Ep. 1.1)
- George Rohr —Peter MacKenzie: political advisor to the American Christian Assembly, former advisor to the Speaker of the House (Ep 7.3)
- President Ismaili of Albania (Ep. 5.06)
- Prime Minister Toder Lukanov of Bulgaria (Ep. 1.21)
- President Eliches of Belarus (Ep. 6.14)
- King Nawa of Bhutan (4.14) Died in January 2003.
- King Yashey Nawa of Bhutan (4.14) Succeeded his deceased father, only 14 years old.
- Prime Minister Dallaire of Canada (Ep. 6.10 & 7.19)
- President Chen of the Republic of China (Taiwan) (Ep. 6.7)
- Premier Zyang of the People's Republic of China (Ep. 6.9)
- President Lian of the People's Republic of China (Ep. 6.9) — Raymond Ma
- President Nimbala of Equatorial Kundu — Zakes Mokae (Ep. 2.4): Overthrown in coup d'etat and executed.
- President Nzele of Equatorial Kundu. (Ep. 4.16) Leader of the Artuku regime
- President D'Astier of France (Ep. 4.1 & 7.4)
- President Trenier of France (Ep. 5.12)
- Chancellor Weissman of Germany (Ep. 5.6)
- Chancellor Ehrhart of Germany (Ep. 7.4)
- President Rustaveli of Georgia (Ep. 6.4)
- President Gianakkos of Greece (Ep. 5.06)
- Colonel Bazen of Haiti. (2.21) Head of the Haitian military junta opposed to the election of Dessaline.
- President Dessaline of Haiti. (2.21) Overthrown by Bazen's junta, but rescued.
- Prime Minister Nohamid of India (Ep. 1.11) Later referred to as a woman whose grandfather played chess with Lord Mountbatten of Burma. President Bartlet implies that the grandfather was Jawaharlal Nehru. (Ep. 3.14)
- President Rahm Siguto of Indonesia — Ariono Suriawinata (Ep. 1.7)
- Ayatollah Afkham, Supreme Leader of Iran (Ep. 4.9)
- Salman Afkham, his 15-year-old son
- President Alijani of Iran (Ep. 5.13 & 6.14) Moderate reformer, despite his extremist rhetoric
- Prime Minister Ben Yahbin of Israel (Ep 1.6)
- Prime Minister Efraim 'Eli' Zahavy of Israel — Armin Mueller-Stahl (Season 5 - 6). Likud
- Maya Zahavy, his wife
- President Rushan Issetov of Kazakhstan (Ep 7.4) Assassinated.
- Prime Minister Tarimov of Kazakhstan (Ep 7.8) Pro-Moscow. Promoted to Acting President after Issetov's death and won unfair election to President
- Chairman Nizar Farad of the Palestinian National Authority — Makram J. Khoury (Ep. 5.22, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.4) - Hardliner. Killed by suicide bomber in Series 7
- Palestinian Prime Minister Saeb Mukarat — Marcelo Tubert (Ep. 5.22, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.4) Moderate, expected to become President when after Farad's death
- President Pyotr Chigorin of Russia. Ex-KGB, won an unfair election. A reformer who supports the environment, nuclear armament reductions and friendship with the US.
- Crown Prince Bitar of Saudi Arabia (Ep. 5.10) Supporter of steady reform in the Kingdom
- President Wang of South Korea (Ep. 6.8)
- President Shevkuh of Ukraine: Implied that he is not a reformer.
- Prime Minister of the United Kingdom: Referred to by Lord John Marbury only by the nickname of "Ricky".Richard Fallon (Season 1)
- Prime Minister Maureen Graty of the United Kingdom — Pamela Salem (Season 6)
- President Miguel Santos of Colombia (Ep. 2.13)
- President Carlos Velasco of Venezuela (Ep. 4.1)
- President Ignacio of Venezuela. Overthrown in a coup d'etat and arrested by Luna (Ep. 4.8)
- Vice President Liu of the People's Republic of China (Ep. 6.9)
- Chairman Xian of the People's Republic of China (Ep. 6.9)
- Vice President Abu El-Azm of Egypt (Ep. 4.20)
- Justice Minister of Haiti Rene Ducasse. [2.21]. Arrested by Colonel Bazen.
- Rahmadi Sumahidjo Bambang, Deputy to President Siguto of Indonesia
- Foreign Minister Ben Yosef of Israel — Malachi Throne (Ep. 4.4): Assassinated when his plane was shot down.
- Israeli Defense Minister Doran Mazar (6.1; 6.2) — Eli Danker
- Brendan McGann, the leader of Sinn Fein in Northern Ireland (Ep. 3.15) His visit to the White House was objected to by UK Ambassador Lord John Marbury
- Defense Minister Takabi of Japan (Ep 5.20)
- Defense Minister Abdul ibn Shareef of Qumar — Al No'mani (Ep. 3.22): Brother of the Sultan and terrorist leader, assassinated by the United States.
- Vasiliy Konanov, a Ukrainian politician — Eugene Lazarev
- Ambassador Ali Nassir of Qumar, Qumari ambassador to the United Nations (Ep. 4.6)
- Minister of Health Dr. Fabius Makabua of Uganda (Ep. 5.18)
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